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Technological Development and Pollution Abatement
Kulsum Ahmed
Price: $ 22

World Bank Technical Paper No. 271.

Documents the move to low-polluting practices by enterprises in response to the global problem of stratospheric ozone depletion.

The continued expansion of industry, particularly in developing countries, makes finding cost-effective and less-polluting substitutes for industrial chemicals a matter of great concern. Alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), in particular, are badly needed because of the destructive effects of CFCs on the stratospheric ozone layer. The Montreal Protocol, an international agreement, sets a timetable for phasing out CFCs and other substances that deplete the ozone layer.

This paper examines some alternatives developed to date for decreasing or eliminating the use of these substances. In separate chapters, the paper examines alternatives to harmful substances used in aerosols, solvents, foam-blowing processes, refrigerators and air conditioners, and fire extinguishers. The chapters survey developments in each of these fields, with a focus on their cost- effectiveness. Some approaches include altering the CFC molecule; substituting a less-polluting chemical; and altering the manufacturing process.

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